כניסה

Bias-free language guidelines

Disability

Use of person-first and identity-first language rather than condescending terms

Problematic:
special needs
physically challenged
mentally challenged, mentally retarded, mentally ill
handi-capable
 
Preferred:
person with a disability, person who has a disability
disabled person
person with a mental illness
people with intellectual disabilities
child with a congenital disability
child with a birth impairment
physically disabled person, person with a physical disability
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Racial and Ethnic Identity

Description of African American or Black people

Problematic:

We interviewed 25 Afro-American people living in rural Louisiana.


Preferred:

We interviewed 25 Black people living in rural Louisiana.

We interviewed 25 African Americans living in rural Louisiana.


Comment: “Afro-American” and “Negro” have become dated; therefore, usage of these terms generally is inappropriate
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People of Middle Eastern and North African origin:

  •  State the nation of origin (e.g., Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel) 
  •  “Arab Americans”

"In all cases, it is best to allow individuals to self-identify"

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Minorities

Problematic:
Minorities

Preferred:
People of color
Underrepresented groups
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Racial-ethnic comparisons

Problematic:
Participants’ race was categorized as either White or non-White.

Preferred:
Participants’ race was categorized as European American, African American, Asian American, or Latin American.
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Age

Terms for older adults

Problematic:

the elderly

elders

elderly people

the aged

aging dependents

seniors

senior citizens


Preferred:

older adults

older people

persons 65 years and older

the older population

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Specifying ages for older adults

Problematic:

old men


Preferred:

older men

men between the ages of 65 and 75

octogenarians

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Discussion of dementia

Problematic:

senility

senile


Preferred:

dementia

person with dementia

person with dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease

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Gender

Gender

Differentiation of gender from sex

Problematic:

It was participants’ sex (whether they were women, men, or nonbinary), not their sexual orientation, that affected number of friendships.

Preferred:

It was participants’ gender (whether they were women, men, or nonbinary), not their sexual orientation, that affected number of friendships.

 Avoid confusing sex with gender.

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 Discussion of humans in general

Problematic:

man, mankind


Preferred:

 people, humanity, human beings, humankind, human species

-------------------

Use of “males” and “females” as nouns

Problematic:

males, females

Preferred:

men, women, boys, girls

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Socioeconomic Status

Description of legal status

Problematic:

the undocumented

illegal aliens

illegal immigrants


Preferred:

individuals who are undocumented, people who are undocumented

undocumented people, undocumented children, undocumented adults

undocumented Bulgarians

DACA students

undocumented workers

people who lack documents required for legal immigration

-------------------

Description of income

Problematic:

the poor

low-class people

poor people


Preferred:

people whose incomes are below the federal poverty threshold

people whose self-reported income were in the lowest income bracket

-------------------

Description of housing status

Problematic:

the homeless

the projects, the ghetto, the inner city


Preferred:

people experiencing homelessness, youth experiencing homelessness

people who are homeless

people who are living in a place not meant for human habitation, in emergency shelter, or in transitional housing

people without fixed, regular, or adequate nighttime residence

low-income housing, low-income areas of the city

-------------------

Description of government assistance

Problematic:

welfare mothers

welfare reliant


Preferred:

mothers who receive TANF benefits

people who are unable to work because of a disability

families whose main income is from TANF benefits

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Description of educational attainment

Problematic:

high-school dropouts

achievement gap


Preferred:

people who have completed 10th grade

people with less than a high-school education

opportunity gap

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חלקים נבחרים מתוך:


הפרק הרלוונטי במדריך:

American Psychological Association. (2020).  Bias-Free language Guidelines. In Publication manual of the American psychological association (7th ed, chaper 5, pp. 131-149). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000


 
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